An electric arc furnace used for steelmaking consists of a refractory-lined vessel, usually water-cooled in larger sizes, covered with a retractable roof, and through which one or more graphite electrodes enter the furnace. The furnace is primarily split into three sections:
The hearth may be hemispherical in shape, or in an eccentric bottom tapping furnace, the hearth has the shape of a halved egg. In modern meltshops, the furnace is often raised off the ground floor, so that ladles and slag pots can easily be maneuvered under either end of the furnace. Separate from the furnace structure is the electrode support and electrical system, and the tilting platform on which the furnace rests. Two configurations are possible: the electrode supports and the roof tilt with the furnace, or are fixed to the raised platform.
- the shell, which consists of the sidewalls and lower steel "bowl";
- the hearth, which consists of the refractory that lines the lower bowl;
- the roof, which may be refractory-lined or water-cooled, and can be shaped as a section of a sphere, or as a frustum (conical section). The roof also supports the refractory delta in its centre, through which one or more graphite electrodes enter.
- top charge melting furnaces (bucket and/or shaft) using scrap, DRI and/or pig iron;
- the Consteel® process (iConsteel®) with or without hot metal;
- continuous DRI fed furnaces (iDRI®).
- MODULE 1 - Dynamic Chemical Energy Control & Optimization (EFSOP)
- MODULE 2 - Dynamic Melting Control
- MODULE 3 - Dynamic End-Point Control